What started out as a local European war soon became a global war that lasted from Check out the historical facts on World War I. Exactly one month later, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
During World War I, the Western Front was the scene of horrible battles for a few yards of territory. But between these battles, and even during them at other places along the five-hundred-mile line in France and Belgium, the enemy soldiers often exercised considerable restraint.
A British staff officer on a tour of the trenches remarked that he was astonished to observe German soldiers walking about within rifle range behind their own line. Our men appeared to take no notice. I privately made up my mind to do away with that sort of thing when we took over; such things should not be allowed.
These people evidently did not know there was a war on. The live-and-let-live system was endemic in trench warfare. It flourished despite the best efforts of senior officers to stop it, despite the passions aroused by combat, despite the military logic of kill or be killed, and despite the ease with which the high command was able to repress any local efforts to arrange a direct truce.
This is a case of cooperation emerging despite great antagonism between the players. As such, it provides a challenge for the application of the concepts and the theory developed in the first three chapters.
In particular, the main goal is to use the theory to explain: How could the live-and-let-live system have gotten started? How was it sustained? Why did it break down toward the end of Trench life during world war one war?
Why was it characteristic of trench warfare in World War I, but of few other wars? A second goal is to use the historical case to suggest how the original concepts and theory can be further elaborated.
Fortunately, a recent book-length study of the live-and-let-live system is available. This excellent work by a British sociologist, Tony Ashworthis based upon diaries, letters, and reminisces of trench fighters. Material was found from virtually every one of the fifty-seven British divisions, with an average of more than three sources per division.
To a lesser extent, material from French and German sources were also consulted. The result is a very rich set of illustrations that are analyzed with great skill to provide a comprehensive picture of the development and character of trench warfare on the Western Front in World War I.
In a given locality, the two players can be taken to be the small units facing each other.
At any time, the choices are to shoot to kill or deliberately to shoot to avoid causing damage. For both sides, weakening the enemy is an important value because it will promote survival if a major battle is ordered in the sector.
Therefore, in the short run it is better to do damage now whether the enemy is shooting back or not. Taken together, this establishes the essential set of inequalities: Typically, the basic unit could be taken to be the battalion, consisting of about one thousand men, half of whom would be in the front line at any one time.
The battalion played a large role in the life of an infantryman. It not only organized its members for combat, but also fed, paid, and clothed them as well as arranged their leave. All of the officers and most of the other soldiers in the battalion knew each other by sight.
For our purposes, two key factors make the battalion the most typical player.
On the other hand, it was small enough to be able to control the individual behavior of its men, through a variety of means, both formal and informal. A battalion on one side might be facing parts of one, two, or three battalions on the other side.
Thus each player could simultaneously be involved in several interactions. Over the course of the Western Front, there would be hundreds of such face-offs. The high commands of the two sides did not share the view of the common soldier who said: The real reason for the quietness of some sections of the line was that neither side had any intention of advancing in that particular district If the British shelled the Germans, the Germans replied, and the damage was equal: Belton Cobbp.
So at the national level, World War I approximated a zero-sum game in which losses for one side represented gains for the other side.This page is a small reprint from the British reference manual on Trench Warfare, British Trench Warfare The manual was originally prepared by the General Staff at the British War Office.
Eye-Deep in Hell: Trench Warfare in World War I [John Ellis] on plombier-nemours.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Millions of men lived in the trenches during World War I. More than six million died there. In Eye-Deep in Hell.
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May 21, · Thousands of miles of trenches were built during World War I and, for the soldiers living in them, their day-to-day life was nothing short of horrific. What was it like to live and work in a World War One trench? Find out in this Bitesize primary KS2 guide.
What weapons and technology were used during WW1? What were houses like years ago? Known as the greatest [American] hero of World War I, York avoided profiting from his war record before Born December 13, in a two-room dogtrot log cabin in Pall Mall, Tennessee, and raised in a rural backwater in the northern section of Fentress County, York was a .