Reporting on anti-corruption raises awareness among employees and provides a means of control and discipline for the management. Reporting on anti-corruption establishes a common language to measure, compare, discuss and improve anti-corruption activities and practices. Reporting not only reassures internal and external stakeholders that the business is operating properly but can also act as a deterrent to those intending to bribe or solicit bribes. Business requirements Information about the programme needs to be regularly communicated to relevant internal and external stakeholders, e.
Microfinance and poverty[ edit ] Financial needs and financial services. In developing economies and particularly in rural areas, many activities that would be classified in the developed world as financial are not monetized: This is often the case when people need the services money can provide but do not have dispensable funds required for those services, forcing them to revert to other means of acquiring them.
Common substitutes for cash vary from country to country but typically include livestock, grains, jewelry and precious metals. As Marguerite Robinson describes in The Micro finance Revolution, the s demonstrated that "micro finance could provide large-scale outreach profitably," and in the s, "micro finance began to develop as an industry"p.
In the s, the micro finance industry's objective is to satisfy the unmet demand on a much larger scale, and to play a role in reducing poverty.
While much progress has been made in developing a viable, commercial micro finance sector in the last few decades, several issues remain that need to be addressed before the industry will be able to satisfy massive worldwide demand.
The obstacles or challenges to building a sound commercial micro finance industry include: Poor regulation and supervision of deposit-taking micro finance institutions MFIs Few MFIs that meet the needs for savings, remittances or insurance Limited management capacity in MFIs Institutional inefficiencies Need for more dissemination and adoption of rural, agricultural micro finance methodologies Members lack of collateral to secure a loan Microfinance is the proper tool to reduce income inequality, allowing citizens from lower socio-economical classes to participate in the economy.
Moreover, its involvement has shown to lead to a downward trend in income inequality Hermes, Building a new home may involve saving and protecting diverse building materials for years until enough are available to proceed with construction.
Because all the value is accumulated before it is needed, this money management strategy is referred to as 'saving up'. A poor family might borrow from relatives to buy land, from a moneylender to buy rice, or from a microfinance institution to buy a sewing machine.
Since these loans must be repaid by saving after the cost is incurred, Rutherford calls this 'saving down'. Rutherford's point is that microcredit is addressing only half the problem, and arguably the less important half: Microcredit institutions should fund their loans through savings accounts that help poor people manage their myriad risks.
Recent studies have also shown that informal methods of saving are unsafe.
For example, a study by Wright and Mutesasira in Uganda concluded that "those with no option but to save in the informal sector are almost bound to lose some money—probably around one quarter of what they save there.
The new paradigm places more attention on the efforts of poor people to reduce their many vulnerabilities by keeping more of what they earn and building up their assets.
While they need loans, they may find it as useful to borrow for consumption as for microenterprise. A safe, flexible place to save money and withdraw it when needed is also essential for managing household and family risk. This microfinance project functions as an unofficial banking system where Jyothi, a "deposit collector", collects money from slum dwellers, mostly women, in order for them to accumulate savings.
Jyothi does her rounds throughout the city, collecting Rs5 a day from people in the slums for days, however not always days in a row since these women do not always have the funds available to put them into savings.
They ultimately end up with Rs at the end of the process. However, there are some issues with this microfinance saving program. One of the issues is that while saving, clients are actually losing part of their savings. There is also the risk of entrusting their savings to unlicensed, informal, peripatetic collectors.Business Principles for Countering Bribery Transparency International Self-Evaluation Tool.
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