The pro-life side is aware of this, which is why a substantial amount of propaganda focuses on the method of late term Dilation and Evacuation procedures and attempts to conflate it with earlier term abortions, to pair a false equivalence with emotional appeal. What has been striking to me, however, is how prevalent the ignorance of issues relevant to late term abortion tends to be on both sides of the divide. On both sides, I often encounter ignorance as to why women might choose to seek late term abortions in the first place although this is more prevalent among pro-lifersand about the relevant physiological details in terms of fetal development near viability. Is there a secular argument for late term abortion bans?
Websites The ethics of animal research Animal use has been a hotly contested moral issue for hundreds of years. This was rejected by Jeremy Bentham in the 18th Century who extended his utilitarian conception of rights to animals due to their capability to suffer.
This was expanded by Peter Singer, inwho wrote in Animal Liberation that arbitrarily treating humans above animals — particularly in marginal cases where animals may be as intelligent as young children or severely cognitively-impaired adults — was not justified.
Animal rights philosophy is distinct from proponents of animal welfare who argue that we must provide adequate conditions for animals in our care — a position held by the RSPCA among others.
The scientific community has often been the driving force for these improvements, arguing that better conditions for animals was conducive to better, more replicable, scientific results.
Books Animal Liberation Peter Singer was an immensely influential book which discussed the ethics of animal use including animal research.
It is often considered the forerunner to the animal liberation movement. Do Animals Have Rights? Alison Hills is an objective assessment of the case for whether animals should have rights and what rights those should be.
Hills discusses their ability of mind, whether all animals should be regarded as equal, and what that means. Hills concludes with a graded scale of animals rights.
The Case for Animal Rights Tom Reagan is another major piece of philosophical writing which argues for animal rights on the basis of their similar cognitive abilities. The Case for Animal Rights.
University of California Press. It is a useful book covering many issues of animal rights activism and philosophy. In Chapter 18, Smith creates his argument in favour of animal research on the basis of human rights and duties.
The Human Use of Animals: Case Studies in Ethical Choice Beauchamp et al. Through 16 case studies, and plenty of ethical theory, the authors attempt to navigate the moral minefields involved.
Case Studies in Ethical Choice. An Odyssey with Animals Adrian Morrison investigates the relationship between humans and animals, and explains why efforts to halt animal research would be damaging to human health.
An Odyssey with Animals. Oxford University Press Online resources Ethics Pro-Test looks at the question of whether animals have rights, concluding that their lack of understanding does not allow them to participate in the system of rights and duties. Although it looks at the whole issue, it pays particular attention to the ethics, specifically in chapter three.
The ethics of research involving animals. Nuffield Council on Bioethics.Genetic Engineering Pros and Cons Definition and Examples Genetic engineering is where a scientist physically changes or modifies the DNA of an organism.
A pros and cons essay encourages you to develop critical thinking skills by examining an issue from different perspectives. Depending upon the assignment, your essay could be a simple summary of the pros and cons of an issue, or you might be required to decide which side is right or synthesize the pros and cons into concrete recommendations.
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