John Gowdy writes, "Assumptions about human behaviour that members of market societies believe to be universal, that humans are naturally competitive and acquisitive, and that social stratification is natural, do not apply to many hunter-gatherer peoples. Original affluent society Anthropologists identify egalitarian cultures as " kinship -oriented," because they appear to value social harmony more than wealth or status. These cultures are contrasted with economically oriented cultures including states in which status and material wealth are prized, and stratification, competition, and conflict are common. Kinship-oriented cultures actively work to prevent social hierarchies from developing because they believe that such stratification could lead to conflict and instability.
For example, a minimum mesh size may be instituted and enforced for the purpose of regulating the size of fish at fish capture and increasing the productivity of the resource; or, a system of licences may be introduced in order to control entry into the fishery for the purpose of maximizing the economic returns from the fishery.
Fishery development, on the other hand, is the expansion of effective effort through a set of assistance programmes again for the purpose of attaining certain objectives. For example, the fishing range of canoes may be expanded through subsidized motorization for the purpose of exploiting underutilized resources and increasing fish supplies and fishermen's incomes.
Fishery development may be defined more broadly to include, in addition to the expansion The main concepts of the social fishing effort, improvement in post-harvest technology, marketing and transportation of fishery products as well as the provision of infrastructure and other related facilities.
This need not be so.
One need not wait for overfishing to occur before management measures are taken. Overfishing is better avoided by judicious management measures taken along with development.
Similarly, the need for development is not confined to underexploited fisheries. As management of overexploited fisheries sooner or later involves the regulation of fishing effort, development, fishery-related or otherwise, is needed to absorb the surplus labour and capital.
In many developing countries, enforcement of management regulations is virtually impossible without development of sufficiently attractive employment alternatives elsewhere.
In the sequel we focus on fishery management and development narrowly defined, broadening our focus as we go along to include these other aspects of fishery development. Finally, in section 4. These interrelations notwithstanding, the priority in overexploited fisheries is for management and in underexploited fisheries for development.
How this optimum is defined depends, of course, on the specific objectives of the policy-makers. If the policy objective is maximum fish production then the optimum rate of exploitation is defined by the maximum sustainable yield MSYthat is, the maximum catch that can be obtained on a sustained basis.
Thus, it is not sufficient to know the MSY and to compare it with the actual catch; we need also to know the fishing effort required to obtain MSY and to compare it with actual effort. If, on the other hand, the policy objective is to maximize the economic benefit to the national economy from the fishery, the optimum rate of exploitation is defined by the maximum economic yield MEYthat is, the maximum sustainable surplus of revenues over fishing costs.
Alternatively, MEY may be thought of as a modification of MSY to take into account the value of the fish caught and the cost of catching it.
The fishery is said to be underexploited in the economic sense and to require further development if the actual catch falls short of MEY due to insufficient effort. Analogously,the fishery is said to be overexploited in the economic sense and to call for management if the actual catch falls short of MEY due to excess fishing effort.
In cases where social considerations, such as the improvement of socio-economic conditions of small-scale fishermen, generation of employment opportunities and improvement of income distribution matter, the optimum rate of exploitation is defined by a third concept, the maximum social yield MScY 8.
This is the level of catch and corresponding effort which provides the best possible solution to social problems given the policy objectives and all possible alternatives. Alternatively, the MScY may be thought of as modification of the MEY to account for non-purely-efficiency aspects, such as poverty and distribution.
Introduction of social considerations may limit the speed with which management measures are introduced, or it may justify a more intensive rate of fishing than is justified on purely economic grounds.
Thus, levels of effort below the one corresponding to MScY may be termed socio-economic underexploitation, while levels of effort above it, socio-economic overexploitation.Basic Concepts & Terms of Sociology. The basic premise of sociology is that human behavior is largely shaped by the groups to which people belong and by the social interaction that takes place within those groups.
The main focus of sociology is the group not the individual. The sociologist is mainly interested in the interaction between the.
One of the four main concepts of Akers's social learning theory. The process through which an individual rationalizes, evaluates, and assigns right and wrong. Definitions of the law may be general or specific. Social media is affecting the way kids look at friendship and intimacy, according to researchers.
The typical teenager has Facebook friends and 79 Twitter followers, the Pew Internet and. Experts in the art of brand response advertising, Concepts TV specializes in developing direct sales for your brands through compelling video.
The Main Concepts For Improving Your Social Skills On plombier-nemours.com There are a lot of articles on this site, and this one will cover what I think are its biggest and most important ideas.
You could say it's a nice little summary of the site, and it could be a good jumping off point for new readers. Social desirability bias refers to the fact that in self-reports, people will often report inaccurately on sensitive topics in order to present themselves in the best possible light (1).