Total Herodotus also records that this was the number at the Battle of Salamis, despite the losses earlier in storms off Sepia and Euboea, and at the battle of Artemisium. He claims that the losses were replenished with reinforcements, though he only records triremes from the Greeks of Thrace and an unspecified number of ships from the Greek islands.
Persia was for the policy-making classes in the largest Greek states a constant preoccupation. It is not known, however, how far down the social scale this preoccupation extended in reality.
After the defeat of the Lydian king Croesus c. In Darius came to power and set about consolidating and strengthening the Persian empire. In bce the Greek city-states on the western coast of Anatolia rose up in rebellion against Persia. This uprising, known as the Ionian revolt — bcefailed, but its consequences for the mainland Greeks were momentous.
Athens and Eretria had sent a small fleet in support of the revolt, which Darius took as a pretext for launching an invasion of the Greek mainland. His forces advanced toward Europe in bce, but, when much of his fleet was destroyed in a storm, he returned home.
However, in a Persian army of 25, men landed unopposed on the Plain of Marathonand the Athenians appealed to Sparta to join forces against the invader.
Owing to a religious festival, the Spartans were detained, and the 10, Athenians had to face the Persians aided only by 1, men from Plataea. The Athenians were commanded by 10 generals, the most daring of whom was Miltiades.
While the Persian cavalry was away, he seized the opportunity to attack. The Greeks then prevented a surprise attack on Athens itself by quickly marching back to the city. The unprecedented size of his forces made their progress quite slow, giving the Greeks plenty of time to prepare their defense.
A general Greek league against Persia was formed in Command of the army was given to Sparta, that of the navy to Athens. The Greek fleet numbered about vessels and was thus only about one-third the size of the Persian fleet. Herodotus estimated the Persian army to number in the millions, but modern scholars tend to doubt his reportage.
The Greeks decided to deploy a force of about 7, men at the narrow pass of Thermopylae and a force of ships under Themistocles at Artemisium.
At sea a detachment of Persian ships attempted to surprise the Greek fleet, but the Greeks, forewarned, engaged the main Persian navy.
That night a tremendous storm destroyed the Persian squadron while the Greeks were safely in port. On land the Persians attacked the Greeks at Thermopylae for two days but suffered heavy losses. However, on the second night a Greek traitor guided the best Persian troops around the pass behind the Greek army.
The Spartan general Leonidas dispatched most of the Greeks south to safety but fought to the death at Thermopylae with the Spartan and Thespian soldiers who remained. While the battle raged at Thermopylae, the Persian fleet attacked the Greek navy, with both sides losing many ships. In September the Persians burned Athens, which, however, by that time had been evacuated.
In the meantime, the Greeks decided to station their fleet in the Strait of Salamis. Themistocles devised a clever stratagem: Soon afterward, the Persian navy retreated to Asia.
It was finally driven from the country after the battle of Plataea in bce, where it was defeated by a combined force of Spartans, Tegeansand Athenians.
The Persian navy was defeated at Mycale, on the Asiatic coast, when it declined to engage the Greek fleet. Instead the Persian navy beached its ships and, joining a land army, fought a losing battle against a Spartan force led by Leotychidas. Although the Persian invasion was ended by the battles at Plataea and Mycale, fighting between Greece and Persia continued for another 30 years.
Led by the Athenians, the newly formed Delian League went on the offensive to free the Ionian city-states on the Anatolian coast. The league had mixed success, and in bce the Peace of Callias finally ended the hostilities between Athens and its allies and Persia.
Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Jun 30, · Persians adored foreign luxuries, including the Greek ones. -Persians, compared to Greeks, had many wives. -Persians took pride in the number of sons they had and the king often gave rewards for those who had the most sons.
Persia and Greece A comparison between the Achaemenid Imperial Dynasty of Persia and the Polesis of Greece. The people living in Persia and Greece developed very different worldviews.
The following elements will be used as the basis of comparisons in order . The second Persian invasion of Greece (– BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece (– BC) at the Battle of Marathon, which ended Darius I 's attempts to subjugate.
Greco-Persian Wars, also called Persian Wars, (– bce), a series of wars fought by Greek states and Persia over a period of almost half a century.
The fighting was most intense during two invasions that Persia launched against mainland Greece between and Persian vs. Greek Society The main differences in the Greek and Persian societies were their way of viewing the world. The Greek wanted their king to be god-like in their statues and saw them as perfection.
Persian Empire was the most powerful state in the world. Ruled from Persia (now Iran) by the King, went from Egypt to Indian. Greece was never an empire, only an alliance of city-sates.