How to write a literature review for educational research

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How to write a literature review for educational research

Many findings from multicultural education research can be applied in the everyday world of teachers and administrators. This observation holds regardless of whether the educators work with many students of color or with only a few.

how to write a literature review for educational research

The research shows that five areas matter a great deal in the education of a multicultural population: One other area—whether the race and ethnicity of teachers affects student learning—remains unclear. Beliefs About Students Matter To begin to see how teacher beliefs affect student achievement, imagine two new teachers.

Don Wilson and Margie Stewart are starting their first year of teaching. After his first weeks of teaching in an urban school, Wilson is exhausted and uncertain about whether he chose the right profession. His class of 28 fourth graders are African Americans and Latinos.

He wants his students to have fun learning. Many are one or more achievement levels below national averages, and some attend school sporadically, fail to complete homework assignments, and seem unmotivated in the classroom.

Although Wilson has sent several notes home expressing concern, parents have not responded. Wilson doubts that he makes any difference in the lives of his students. The first weeks of teaching in a suburban school have been exhausting for Stewart, too, but she is enjoying herself.

Three of the remaining five are African American, and two are Mexican American one speaks limited English. In general, the students test at or above grade level on standardized tests, but the students of color lag behind the others. She fears that he is a special needs student. The research literature suggests that how teachers like Wilson and Stewart think about education and students makes a pronounced difference in student performance and achievement AppleCooper Winfield found that teachers expect more from white students than from African-American students, and they expect more from middle-class students than from working- and lower-class students.

Teachers often perceive African-American students from working- or lower-class backgrounds as incapable of high-quality academic work.

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Both Wilson and Stewart are entertaining such thoughts. They are not attributing their problems with students of color to ineffective teaching approaches. Sometimes, unrecognized or outright racism causes teachers to hold negative beliefs about students of color.

I hate to categorize it but I am more comfortable with black students who act white Birrell Such negative attitudes toward students of color lower expectations for achievement, which lowers achievement King and Ladson-BillingsLipman Content and Materials Matter Teachers who are sincerely committed to multicultural education cannot be satisfied with superficial celebrations of heroes and holidays.

This approach to content trivializes multicultural education and conveys the idea that diversity issues come into play only during celebratory moments with foods, fun, and festivals. In the multicultural festival model, teachers, students, and parents typically spend lots of time and energy preparing for an all-school activity.

Students may do background research about a culture, prepare maps, and help create indigenous costumes. Parents may help to prepare various ethnic foods.

On the day of the festival, members of the school community go from class to class, visiting the various cultures, sampling the foods, and enjoying dances, songs, and arts and crafts.

At the end of the day, everyone agrees that the annual event has been a great success. Then teachers and students go back to their real work. In the transformative model, on the other hand, multicultural education is not a separate, isolated, once-a-year activity.Telling a Research Story: Writing a Literature Review (Michigan Series in English for Academic & Professional Purposes) revised/expanded English in Today's Research World Edition.

A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated.

How to write a research proposal, including its major stages of conceptualization and development. A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah 5 Top Tips on Writing a Literature Review for Your Education Research Project Tip 9: Writing tips Vary your vocabulary: Use the thesaurus on your computer to avoid repeating the same word several times in a small section of text.

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