For elective courses that include student-chosen projects, students are expected to focus their work on Latin America or the Caribbean. No more than eight credits can come from courses in a single department.
Dispersal through slave trade[ edit ] See also: Beginning in the 8th century, Arabs took African slaves from the central and eastern portions of the continent where they were known as the Zanj and sold them into markets in the Middle Eastthe Indian subcontinentand the Far East.
Beginning in the 15th century, Europeans captured or bought African slaves from West Africa and brought them to the Americas and Europe.
The Atlantic Slave Trade ended in the 19th century, and the Arab Slave Trade ended in the middle of the 20th century  although pockets of slavery still exist into the 21st century, such as the Haratin in Mauritania. The dispersal through slave trading represents the largest forced migrations in human history.
The economic effect on the African continent was devastating, as generations of young people were taken from their communities and societies were disrupted. Some communities created by descendants of African slaves in the Americas, Europe, and Asia have survived to the modern day.
In other cases, blacks intermarried with non-blacks, and their descendants are blended into the local population. In the Americas, the confluence of multiple ethnic groups from around the world created multi-ethnic societies. In Brazil, where in nearly half the population was descended from African slaves, the variation of physical characteristics extends across a broad range.
In the United States, there was historically a greater European colonial population in relation to African slaves, especially in the Northern Tier. There was considerable racial intermarriage in colonial Virginiaand other forms of racial mixing during the slavery and post-Civil War years.
Racist Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws passed after the Reconstruction era in the South in the late nineteenth century, plus waves of vastly increased immigration from Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries, maintained some distinction between racial groups.
In the early 20th century, to institutionalize racial segregationmost southern states adopted the " one drop rule ", which defined and recorded anyone with any discernible African ancestry as black, even of obvious majority white or Native American ancestry. Dispersal through voluntary migration[ edit ] See Emigration from Africa for a general treatment of voluntary population movements since the late 20th century.
Online shopping from a great selection at Books Store. JMU's interdisciplinary Minor in Latin American and Caribbean Studies (LACS) helps students to acquire a deeper understanding of Latin America and the Caribbean. Don't pass up the opportunity to become more informed and involved. GREATER CARIBBEAN STUDIES CENTER. The creation of a center for the study of the Greater Caribbean (GCSC) within the Institute of Latin American Studies at Columbia University in New York could not be a more appropriate site for the endeavor.
From the very onset of Spanish exploration and colonial activities in the Americas, Africans participated both as voluntary expeditionaries and as involuntary laborers.
He crossed the Atlantic as a freedman in the s and participated in the siege of Tenochtitlan. Beginning in the late 20th century, Africans began to emigrate to Europe and the Americas in increasing numbers, constituting new African diaspora communities not directly connected with the slave trade.
Concepts and definitions[ edit ] The African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union.
Social and political[ edit ] 20th-century American philosopher and sociologist W. Du Bois wrote extensively on the black experience in his homeland and abroad; he spent the last two years of his life in the newly-independent Ghana and got citizenship there.
Many scholars have challenged conventional views of the African diaspora as a mere dispersion of black people. For them, it is a movement of liberation that opposes the implications of racialization.
Their position assumes that Africans and their descendants abroad struggle to reclaim power over their lives through voluntary migration, cultural production and political conceptions and practices.
It also implies the presence of cultures of resistance with similar objectives throughout the global diaspora.
Dubois and more recently Robin Kelleyfor example, have argued that black politics of survival reveal more about the meaning of the African diaspora than labels of ethnicity and race, and degrees of skin hue.
From this view, the daily struggle against what they call the "world-historical processes" of racial colonization, capitalism, and Western domination defines blacks' links to Africa. This trend also opposes the traditional eurocentric perspective that has dominated history books showing Africans and its diasporans as primitive victims of slavery, and without historical agency.
According to historian Patrick Manningblacks toiled at the center of forces that created the modern world. Paul Gilroy describes the suppression of blackness due to imagined and created ideals of nations as "cultural insiderism.
Recognizing their contributions offers a comprehensive appreciation of global history.
Further, Iton suggests a new starting principle for the use of diaspora: Zanj — descendants of Zanj slaves whose ancestors were brought to the Near East and other parts of Asia during the Arab slave trade.
Also referred to as the Makrani in Pakistan.Supporting Scholarship, Forging Partnerships. Initiating opportunities. More > Join our E-mail list.
GREATER CARIBBEAN STUDIES CENTER. The creation of a center for the study of the Greater Caribbean (GCSC) within the Institute of Latin American Studies at Columbia University in New York could not be a more appropriate site for the endeavor.
Caribbean, Latin American & Latino Studies. Masters of Arts in Humanities in Caribbean and Latin/o American Studies (CLAS) A Multi-Sited Pre-Professional Program in Advanced Studies and Research.
Sugar. Studying a single food or commodity such as sugar may seem like an incongruous project for an anthropologist who claims to work mostly with living people. Surviving Slavery in the British Caribbean is an accessible and captivating account of the thin line between life and death for enslaved people in 19th Century Berbice (present-day Guyana)—and the steps taken by individuals to stay on the right side of that line.
JMU's interdisciplinary Minor in Latin American and Caribbean Studies (LACS) helps students to acquire a deeper understanding of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Don't pass up the opportunity to become more informed and involved.