Clara and the Bookwagon by: Nancy Smiler Levinson, illustrated by: Carolyn Croll - Harper Collins, 64 pages.
Norden Overview Portugal, officially called the Portuguese Republic, is the westernmost country of continental Europe. It is bordered on the east and north by Spain, with which it shares the Iberian Peninsula, and on the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean.
It is about the size of Ohio, having an area of 35, square miles 92, square kilometersand measuring miles at its longest point and miles at its widest.
Portugal's current population of roughly 9. Major cities are the capital Lisbon, Porto, and Amadora. However, twothirds of the people live in rural areas. Nearly 99 percent of the population is of Portuguese origin; the largest ethnic minorities include Cape Verdeans, Brazilians, the Spanish, British, and Americans.
Although there is no official religion A background of americas favorite pastime baseball Portugal, There are small minorities of Jews and Muslims. The country's official language is Portuguese, and the national flag has a field of green on the left with a wider field of red on the right; the national emblem is centered on the line dividing the two colors.
Portugal's chief products are grapes, potatoes, hogs, beef cattle, corn, sardines, tuna, textiles, paper products, electrical machinery, cork products, ceramics, and shoes. Phoenicians and Carthaginians later established themselves in southern Portugal.
After the Second Punic War B. The Lusitanians, a warlike Celtic tribe under the leadership of Viriathus, fiercely opposed the Roman armies, but the latter triumphed.
Roman contributions to Portugal included roads, buildings, and the Latin language, from which Portuguese developed.
Portugal's name derives from Portus Cale, a pre-Roman or Roman settlement near the mouth of the Douro River, where Porto is now located. In the fifth century A. In the Muslims invaded the peninsula, and Christian forces spent the next years trying to expel them.
By his kingdom, occupying the northern third of present-day Portugal, was recognized as autonomous and separate from Castile. He was responsible for moving the capital from Coimbra to Lisbon, for lessening the power of the church in his land, and for convoking the Cortes at Leiria at which the commoners were represented for the first time.
His wife, Elizabeth, who worked to maintain peace in Portugal, was known as the Holy Queen rainha santa and was later canonized as St. There was disagreement as to whether Beatriz should be heiress to the throne, and in the Cortes chose John, an illegitimate son of Peter I the Cruela former king of Portugal, to rule as John I.
John was Master of a religious-military order, the Order of Aviz. John's son, known as Prince Henry the Navigator, utilized the resources of geographers and navigators to launch a series of explorations beyond the frontiers of Portugal.
With the peninsula now reconquered from the Muslims, the Portuguese drive for expansion continued out of a desire to explore unknown lands, to seek a trade route for transporting spices from India, and to spread the Christian religion.
Henry financed the expeditions that discovered Madeira and the Azores; these islands were uninhabited but were quickly colonized, and they still belong to Portugal.
Manuel, who married Isabella, the eldest daughter of Spain's Ferdinand and Isabella, never realized his dream of uniting Spain and Portugal under his power. As part of his marriage contract with Isabella, he was required to rid Portugal of the Jews who had taken refuge there after being expelled from Spain.
A few were allowed to emigrate, but most were forcibly converted to Christianity. The Portuguese had increasingly resented Spanish rule because of taxation and because the promises Philip had made to maintain Portugal's autonomy and to name only Portuguese to government posts were soon broken.
Spain finally recognized Portuguese independence in Gold was discovered in Minas Gerais inand Brazil became a source of diamonds beginning in Great wealth was extracted by the Portuguese, and a 20 percent tax on it maintained their monarchs. John V sought to establish an absolute monarchy.
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The latter is credited with the competent governmental response to the earthquake that leveled Lisbon in Pombal also ordered the expulsion of the Jesuits in and the consequent reform of the educational system.
In Spain invaded Portugal, and peace was not achieved until through the Treaty of San Ildefonso. In Napoleon issued a decree intended to close all continental ports to British ships, and he later invaded Portugal to ensure that his decree was carried out there.Top 5 Reasons Baseball Is The American Pastime By Christy Flom on May 20, These days, the popularity of sports is often determined by television viewership.
Sure, TV ratings suggest otherwise. But that metric ignores other strong indicators—like local fan-base fervor and enduring cultural relevance—that baseball still matters.
Barack Obama's greatly overrated intellect President Obama's problem is not just inexperience or the fact that he'd rather play golf or basketball than sit in his office and make difficult decisions.
There is a lot of evidence (presented below) that he's just not terribly bright. Smooth blond twinks Dylan Hall and Scotty Clarke start off the day frolicking at the beach and end the day rolling around in the bedroom.
The boys have a hot and steamy make out session before Scotty goes down on Dylan, licking and sucking Dylan s huge cock. Foreign audiences associate American media with big budget spectacle.
Consider the fact that Hollywood is the only place in the world where millions of dollars are used to make films and TV shows about sensational topics. Thank you for visiting the America’s Pastime web site.
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